THE INNOVATION-DECISION PROCESS
By Iis Sulyaningsih
Innovation has been studied in a variety of contexts, including in relation to technology, commerce, social system, economic development, and policy construction. There are, therefore, naturally a wide range of approaches to conceptualizing innovation in the scholarly literature.
Innovation is typically understood as the successful introduction of something new and useful, for example introducing new methods, techniques or practices or new or altered products and services.
Innovation typically involves creativity, but is not identical to it: innovation involves acting on the creative ideals to make some specific and tangible difference in the domain in which the innovation occurs.
For innovation to occur, something more than the generation of a creative idea or insight is required: the insight must be put into action to make a genuine difference, resulting for example in new or altered business processes within the organization, or changes in the products and services provided.
“An Innovation is an idea, practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption” (Roger, Everret)
“The term innovation means a new way of doing something” ( Mckeown,2008 )
“Innovation……………is generally understood as the successful introduction of a new thing or method………. Innovation is embodiment, combination, or synthesis knowledge in original, relevant, valued new product, process and new services ( Luecke and Katz).
“All innovations begins with creative ideas…We define innovation as the successful implementation of creative ideas within on organization. In this view ,creativity by individuals and teams is starting point for innovation: …”(Amabile et al :1996)
The innovation decision process is the process through which an individual (or other decision making unit) passes from first knowledge of an innovation, to forming an attitude toward the innovation, to decision to adopt or to reject, to implementation of the new idea, and to confirmation of this decision.
A MODEL OF THE INNOVATION –DECISION PROCESS
Five Stages of Decision Process
- 1. Knowledge
- 2. Persuasion
- 3. Decision
- 4. Implementation
- 5. Confirmation
Knowledge occurs when individual (or other decision unit) exposed to the innovations existence and gain some understanding of how its functions. Innovations may lead to needs as well as vice versa.
Innovation happens because of needs such as in pesticide innovation.
A need is a state of dissatisfaction or frustration that occurs that one’s desires outweigh one’s actualities, when “wants’ outruns “gets as.
However, innovations may create the need like clothing fashion.
The awareness of knowledge motivates individual of information and it leads to the innovation.
This occurs when individual (other decision making unit) forms a favorable or unfavorable attitudes towards the innovation.
In developing favorable and unfavorable attitude towards innovation, individual may mentally apply the new idea to his or her present or anticipated future situation before deciding. This is a kind of vicarious trial. The main outcome of this stage is either favorable or unfavorable towards the innovation.
Decision occurs when individual (other decision making) engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation.
Adoption is a decision to make full use of an innovation as the best course of action available.
Most individuals will not adopt any innovation without trying it first on a probationary basis to determine its usefulness on their own situation. If innovation has at least a certain degree of relative advantage, then individual will move to an adoption decision.
Rejection is a decision not to adopt an innovation.
Two different types of rejection ( Eveland, 1979)
- 1. Active rejection, which consist of considering adoption of innovation (including even its trial) but then deciding not to adopt it.
- 2. Passive rejection (also called non adoption), which consist of never really considering use of the innovation.
Implementation occurs when individual (or other decision making unit) puts an innovation into use. In this stage, implementation involves overt behavior change, as the new idea is actually put into practice. The point is reached when the new idea becomes institutionalized or regularized of the adopter’s ongoing operations.
Adoption means the exact copying or imitation of how innovation has been used previously in different setting. Sometimes adopted innovation is modified or changed by the users in the process of its adoption implementation. That is called re-invention and it occurs for certain innovation and for certain adopters. As a result of re-invention, an innovation may be more appropriate in matching systems preexisting problem and more responsive to new problems that arise during the innovation decision process.
“A national survey of innovation in public school found that when an educational innovation was re-invented by a school, its adoption is more likely to be continued and less likely to be discontinued”( Berman and Pauley ,1975).
Reasons for re-invention
- 1. Innovation that are relatively more complex and difficult to understand. (Larsen and Agarlawa Rogers,1977a,177b)
- 2. The adapter’s lack of detailed knowledge about the innovation
- 3. An innovation that is general concept or that is a tool (like a computer) with many possible applications.
- 4. Innovation is implemented to solve a wide range of user’s problem.
- 5. Local pride of ownership of an innovation.
- 6. A change agency influences its clients to re-invent new ideas
Confirmation occurs when individual seeks reinforcement for the innovation decision already made. In the confirmation stage the individual seeks to avoid a state of dissonance or to reduce if it occurs.
In the case of innovative behavior, dissonance may occur:
- 1. When the individual becomes aware of felt need of problem or problem and seeks information to meet this need.
- 2. When individual has favorable attitude towards the innovation, but has not adopted.
- 3. After the decision and the implementation of innovation, individual secures further information that persuade him/her not to adopt it.
Discontinuance is a decision to reject an innovation after having previously adopted.
Two types of discontinuance:
- 1. Replacement
This is the decision to reject new idea in order to adopt a better idea that supersedes it.
- 2. Disenchantment
This is a decision to reject an idea as a result of dissatisfaction with its performance.
Two categories of adopter :
- 1. Earlier adopters
They have more education and an understanding of methods, so they know how to generalize the results of an innovation’s trial to its full scale use.
- 2. Later adopters
They also have fewer resources.
Communication Channels In The Innovation–Decision Process.
Diffusion of innovations occurred by the mean of messages sources and the channel that carries the message.
Two categories of communication Channels
- 1. Interpersonal or mass media in nature
- 2. Originating from either localite or cosmopolite sources.
Interpersonal channels can:
1. Provide a two way exchange of information
2. Persuade an individual to form or to change a strongly held attitude.
Mass Media are relatively more important at the knowledge stage.
Interpersonal channels are relatively more important at the persuasion stage in the Innovation –Decision Process.
Mass media channels are relatively important than interpersonal channels for the earlier adopters than for later adopters.
Localite channels are relatively more important at persuasion stage in the Innovation- Decision Process.
Cosmopolite channels are relatively important at the knowledge stage in the innovation-decision Process.
Cosmopolite channels are relatively more important than localite channels for earlier adopters than later adopters.
The Innovation –Decision Periods
The innovation-decision periods is the length of time that is required to pass through the innovation-decision process. The rate o awareness knowledge of innovation is more rapid than its rate of adoption. Earlier adopters have a shorter innovation –decision period than later adopters.
Innovation comes from creative thinking and is usually aimed to make something better or adds value to the outcome of the process. The innovation can not be automatically known by people who may use the innovation or adopters. It needs time and process to socialize the innovation to be used. The process will include many institutions such as ways and media.
Innovation in education may deal with the way of how how teaching will succeed in reaching the objectives. It will the technique or method in delivering material to student.
The creative teacher will try to develop their ability and capability. When his/her trying is successful and has significant point in achieving learning objectives,he/she develop his/her way as a new technic or method in teaching. It’s better to familrize and socialize that new technic to others.The process of innovation diffusion of educational innovation is not really the same as the explanation above.
Rogers, Everett M.1983.Diffusion of Innovations.The Free Press.New York.
___________2008.Innovation.Wikipedia.Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innovation